一、前言

在消息中间件中有 2 个重要的概念:消息代理和目的地。当消息发送者发送消息后,消息就被消息代理接管,消息代理保证消息传递到指定目的地。
我们常用的消息代理有 JMS 和 AMQP 规范。对应地,它们常见的实现分别是 ActiveMQ 和 RabbitMQ。
上篇文章《Spring Boot 入门之缓存和 NoSQL 篇(四)》

二、整合 ActiveMQ

2.1 添加依赖

<dependency>
  <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
  <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-activemq</artifactId>
</dependency>
<!-- 如果需要配置连接池,添加如下依赖 -->
<dependency>
    <groupId>org.apache.activemq</groupId>
    <artifactId>activemq-pool</artifactId>
</dependency>

2.2 添加配置

# activemq 配置
spring.activemq.broker-url=tcp://192.168.2.61:61616
spring.activemq.user=admin
spring.activemq.password=admin
spring.activemq.pool.enabled=false
spring.activemq.pool.max-connections=50
# 使用发布/订阅模式时,下边配置需要设置成 true
spring.jms.pub-sub-domain=false

此处 spring.activemq.pool.enabled=false,表示关闭连接池。

2.3 编码

配置类:

@Configuration
public class JmsConfirguration {
  public static final String QUEUE_NAME = "activemq_queue";
  public static final String TOPIC_NAME = "activemq_topic";
  @Bean
    public Queue queue() {
        return new ActiveMQQueue(QUEUE_NAME);
    }
  @Bean
  public Topic topic() {
    return new ActiveMQTopic(TOPIC_NAME);
  }
}

负责创建队列和主题。
消息生产者:

@Component
public class JmsSender {
    @Autowired
    private Queue queue;
    @Autowired
    private Topic topic;
    @Autowired
    private JmsMessagingTemplate jmsTemplate;
    public void sendByQueue(String message) {
        this.jmsTemplate.convertAndSend(queue, message);
    }
    public void sendByTopic(String message) {
        this.jmsTemplate.convertAndSend(topic, message);
    }
}

消息消费者:

@Component
public class JmsReceiver {
    @JmsListener(destination = JmsConfirguration.QUEUE_NAME)
    public void receiveByQueue(String message) {
        System.out.println("接收队列消息:" + message);
    }
    @JmsListener(destination = JmsConfirguration.TOPIC_NAME)
    public void receiveByTopic(String message) {
        System.out.println("接收主题消息:" + message);
    }
}

消息消费者使用 @JmsListener 注解监听消息。

2.4 测试

@RunWith(SpringRunner.class)
@SpringBootTest
public class JmsTest {
    @Autowired
    private JmsSender sender;
    @Test
    public void testSendByQueue() {
        for (int i = 1; i < 6; i++) {
            this.sender.sendByQueue("hello activemq queue " + i);
        }
    }
    @Test
    public void testSendByTopic() {
        for (int i = 1; i < 6; i++) {
            this.sender.sendByTopic("hello activemq topic " + i);
        }
    }
}

打印结果:

接收队列消息:hello activemq queue 1
接收队列消息:hello activemq queue 2
接收队列消息:hello activemq queue 3
接收队列消息:hello activemq queue 4
接收队列消息:hello activemq queue 5

测试发布/订阅模式时,设置 spring.jms.pub-sub-domain=true

接收主题消息:hello activemq topic 1
接收主题消息:hello activemq topic 2
接收主题消息:hello activemq topic 3
接收主题消息:hello activemq topic 4
接收主题消息:hello activemq topic 5

三、整合 RabbitMQ

3.1 添加依赖

<dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-amqp</artifactId>
</dependency>

3.2 添加配置

spring.rabbitmq.host=192.168.2.71
spring.rabbitmq.port=5672
spring.rabbitmq.username=light
spring.rabbitmq.password=light
spring.rabbitmq.virtual-host=/test

3.3 编码

配置类:

@Configuration
public class AmqpConfirguration {
    // =============简单、工作队列模式===============
    public static final String SIMPLE_QUEUE = "simple_queue";
    @Bean
    public Queue queue() {
        return new Queue(SIMPLE_QUEUE, true);
    }
    // ===============发布/订阅模式============
    public static final String PS_QUEUE_1 = "ps_queue_1";
    public static final String PS_QUEUE_2 = "ps_queue_2";
    public static final String FANOUT_EXCHANGE = "fanout_exchange";
    @Bean
    public Queue psQueue1() {
        return new Queue(PS_QUEUE_1, true);
    }
    @Bean
    public Queue psQueue2() {
        return new Queue(PS_QUEUE_2, true);
    }
    @Bean
    public FanoutExchange fanoutExchange() {
        return new FanoutExchange(FANOUT_EXCHANGE);
    }
    @Bean
    public Binding fanoutBinding1() {
        return BindingBuilder.bind(psQueue1()).to(fanoutExchange());
    }
    @Bean
    public Binding fanoutBinding2() {
        return BindingBuilder.bind(psQueue2()).to(fanoutExchange());
    }
    // ===============路由模式============
    public static final String ROUTING_QUEUE_1 = "routing_queue_1";
    public static final String ROUTING_QUEUE_2 = "routing_queue_2";
    public static final String DIRECT_EXCHANGE = "direct_exchange";
    @Bean
    public Queue routingQueue1() {
        return new Queue(ROUTING_QUEUE_1, true);
    }
    @Bean
    public Queue routingQueue2() {
        return new Queue(ROUTING_QUEUE_2, true);
    }
    @Bean
    public DirectExchange directExchange() {
        return new DirectExchange(DIRECT_EXCHANGE);
    }
    @Bean
    public Binding directBinding1() {
        return BindingBuilder.bind(routingQueue1()).to(directExchange()).with("user");
    }
    @Bean
    public Binding directBinding2() {
        return BindingBuilder.bind(routingQueue2()).to(directExchange()).with("order");
    }
    // ===============主题模式============
    public static final String TOPIC_QUEUE_1 = "topic_queue_1";
    public static final String TOPIC_QUEUE_2 = "topic_queue_2";
    public static final String TOPIC_EXCHANGE = "topic_exchange";
    @Bean
    public Queue topicQueue1() {
        return new Queue(TOPIC_QUEUE_1, true);
    }
    @Bean
    public Queue topicQueue2() {
        return new Queue(TOPIC_QUEUE_2, true);
    }
    @Bean
    public TopicExchange topicExchange() {
        return new TopicExchange(TOPIC_EXCHANGE);
    }
    @Bean
    public Binding topicBinding1() {
        return BindingBuilder.bind(topicQueue1()).to(topicExchange()).with("user.add");
    }
    @Bean
    public Binding topicBinding2() {
        return BindingBuilder.bind(topicQueue2()).to(topicExchange()).with("user.#");
    }
}

RabbitMQ 有多种工作模式,因此配置比较多。想了解相关内容的读者可以查看本站的《RabbitMQ 工作模式介绍》或者自行百度相关资料。
消息生产者:

@Component
public class AmqpSender {
    @Autowired
    private AmqpTemplate amqpTemplate;
    /**
     * 简单模式发送
     *
     * @param message
     */
    public void simpleSend(String message) {
        this.amqpTemplate.convertAndSend(AmqpConfirguration.SIMPLE_QUEUE, message);
    }
    /**
     * 发布/订阅模式发送
     *
     * @param message
     */
    public void psSend(String message) {
        this.amqpTemplate.convertAndSend(AmqpConfirguration.FANOUT_EXCHANGE, "", message);
    }
    /**
     * 路由模式发送
     *
     * @param message
     */
    public void routingSend(String routingKey, String message) {
        this.amqpTemplate.convertAndSend(AmqpConfirguration.DIRECT_EXCHANGE, routingKey, message);
    }
    /**
     * 主题模式发送
     *
     * @param routingKey
     * @param message
     */
    public void topicSend(String routingKey, String message) {
        this.amqpTemplate.convertAndSend(AmqpConfirguration.TOPIC_EXCHANGE, routingKey, message);
    }
}

消息消费者:

@Component
public class AmqpReceiver {
    /**
     * 简单模式接收
     *
     * @param message
     */
    @RabbitListener(queues = AmqpConfirguration.SIMPLE_QUEUE)
    public void simpleReceive(String message) {
        System.out.println("接收消息:" + message);
    }
    /**
     * 发布/订阅模式接收
     *
     * @param message
     */
    @RabbitListener(queues = AmqpConfirguration.PS_QUEUE_1)
    public void psReceive1(String message) {
        System.out.println(AmqpConfirguration.PS_QUEUE_1 + "接收消息:" + message);
    }
    @RabbitListener(queues = AmqpConfirguration.PS_QUEUE_2)
    public void psReceive2(String message) {
        System.out.println(AmqpConfirguration.PS_QUEUE_2 + "接收消息:" + message);
    }
    /**
     * 路由模式接收
     *
     * @param message
     */
    @RabbitListener(queues = AmqpConfirguration.ROUTING_QUEUE_1)
    public void routingReceive1(String message) {
        System.out.println(AmqpConfirguration.ROUTING_QUEUE_1 + "接收消息:" + message);
    }
    @RabbitListener(queues = AmqpConfirguration.ROUTING_QUEUE_2)
    public void routingReceive2(String message) {
        System.out.println(AmqpConfirguration.ROUTING_QUEUE_2 + "接收消息:" + message);
    }
    /**
     * 主题模式接收
     *
     * @param message
     */
    @RabbitListener(queues = AmqpConfirguration.TOPIC_QUEUE_1)
    public void topicReceive1(String message) {
        System.out.println(AmqpConfirguration.TOPIC_QUEUE_1 + "接收消息:" + message);
    }
    @RabbitListener(queues = AmqpConfirguration.TOPIC_QUEUE_2)
    public void topicReceive2(String message) {
        System.out.println(AmqpConfirguration.TOPIC_QUEUE_2 + "接收消息:" + message);
    }
}

消息消费者使用 @RabbitListener 注解监听消息。

3.4 测试

@RunWith(SpringRunner.class)
@SpringBootTest
public class AmqpTest {
    @Autowired
    private AmqpSender sender;
    @Test
    public void testSimpleSend() {
        for (int i = 1; i < 6; i++) {
            this.sender.simpleSend("test simpleSend " + i);
        }
    }
    @Test
    public void testPsSend() {
        for (int i = 1; i < 6; i++) {
            this.sender.psSend("test psSend " + i);
        }
    }
    @Test
    public void testRoutingSend() {
        for (int i = 1; i < 6; i++) {
            this.sender.routingSend("order", "test routingSend " + i);
        }
    }
    @Test
    public void testTopicSend() {
        for (int i = 1; i < 6; i++) {
            this.sender.topicSend("user.add", "test topicSend " + i);
        }
    }
}

测试结果略过。。。
踩坑提醒1:ACCESS_REFUSED – Login was refused using authentication mechanism PLAIN
解决方案:

  1. 请确保用户名和密码是否正确,需要注意的时用户名和密码的值是否包含空格或制表符。

  2. 如果测试账户使用的是 guest,需要修改 rabbitmq.conf 文件。在该文件中添加 “loopback_users = none” 配置。

踩坑提醒2:Cannot prepare queue for listener. Either the queue doesn’t exist or the broker will not allow us to use it
解决方案:
我们可以登陆 RabbitMQ 的管理界面,在 Queue 选项中手动添加对应的队列。

四、源码下载

五、参考资料

作者:月光中的污点

来源:https://www.extlight.com/2018/01/26/Spring-Boot-%E5%85%A5%E9%97%A8%E4%B9%8B%E6%B6%88%E6%81%AF%E4%B8%AD%E9%97%B4%E4%BB%B6%E7%AF%87%EF%BC%88%E4%BA%94%EF%BC%89/